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Financial year 2021

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All income and expense must be accurately recorded in their correct accounts and all accounts must close in a solvent condition. Fiscal Period 12 has an extended close date — to be announced when fiscal year-end close approaches — allowing additional time to make appropriate adjustments, accruals, and deferrals. The University of California, Irvine is required to comply with deadlines established by the Office of the President. Because the fiscal year straddles two different calendar years, the calendar year and fiscal year will not always match.

For example, Fiscal Year runs from July 1, — June 30, Each fiscal year is further broken down into segments called "fiscal periods. Fiscal Periods There are a total of 15 fiscal periods to which General Ledger entries can be posted. In Ireland , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

Until , it was the year ending 5 April, as in the United Kingdom, but was changed with the introduction of the euro. The tax year was nine months, from April to December. In Israel , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Italy , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. It was changed in , before which it was 1 July to 30 June. In Japan , the government's financial year is from 1 April to 31 March.

Japan's income tax year is 1 January to 31 December, [38] but corporate tax is charged according to the corporation's own annual period. In Lithuania , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Macau , the government's financial year is 1 January to 31 December. In Mexico , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

In Moldova , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Myanmar , the fiscal year is 1 October to 30 September. In New Zealand , the government's fiscal [44] and financial reporting [45] year is 1 July to the next 30 June [46] and applies also to the budget.

The company and personal financial year [47] is 1 April to 31 March and applies to company and personal income tax. In Pakistan , the government's fiscal year is 1 July of the previous calendar year and concludes on 30 June. Private companies are free to observe their own accounting year, which may not be the same as government's fiscal year. In Poland , the fiscal year is from 1 January to 31 December. In Portugal , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

In Qatar , the fiscal year is from 1 January to 31 December. In Romania , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Russia , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Singapore , the fiscal year for the calculation of personal income taxes is 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year for the Government of Singapore and many government-linked corporations is 1 April to 31 March. Corporations and organisations are permitted to select any date as the end of each fiscal year, as long as this date remains constant.

However, new companies should consciously choose their financial year end to stretch as much as a duration of 12 months as possible. The year of assessment for individuals covers twelve months, 1 March to the final day of February the following year. The Act also provides for certain classes of taxpayers to have a year of assessment ending on a day other than the last day of February.

Companies are permitted to have a tax year ending on a date that coincides with their financial year. Many older companies still use a tax year that runs from 1 July to 30 June, inherited from the British system. A common practice for newer companies is to run their tax year from 1 March to the final day of February following, to synchronize with the tax year for individuals.

In South Korea , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Spain , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Sweden , the fiscal year for individuals is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. However, all calendar months are allowed. If an organisation wishes to change into a non-calendar year, permission from the Tax Authority is required.

In Switzerland , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Taiwan , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. However, an enterprise may elect to adopt a special fiscal year at the time it is established and can request approval from the tax authorities to change its fiscal year.

In Turkey , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Ukraine , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In the United Kingdom , the financial year runs from 1 April to 31 March for the purposes of government financial statements. Although United Kingdom corporation tax is charged by reference to the government's financial year, companies can adopt any year as their accounting year: if there is a change in tax rate, the taxable profit is apportioned to financial years on a time basis.

A number of major corporations that were once government-owned, such as BT Group and the National Grid , continue to use the government's financial year, which ends on the last day of March, as they have found no reason to change since privatisation. The 5 April year end for income tax reflects the old civil and ecclesiastical calendar under which New Year began on 25 March Lady Day. The difference between the two dates is accounted for by the eleven days omitted in September due to the Calendar New Style Act by which Great Britain also converted from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar.

However, although the calendar year finished on 24 March, the tax year finished a day later, on 25 March, the Quarter Day. For a fuller explanation about the history of the United Kingdom income tax year and its start date, see History of taxation in the United Kingdom Why the United Kingdom income tax year begins on 6 April.

In the United States , the federal government's fiscal year is the month period beginning 1 October and ending 30 September the following year. The identification of a fiscal year is the calendar year in which it ends; thus, the current fiscal year is , often written as "FY" or "FY22", which began on 1 October and will end on 30 September Until , the fiscal year began on 1 July and ended on 30 June.

The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of made the change to allow Congress more time to arrive at a budget each year, and provided for what is known as the "transitional quarter" from 1 July to 30 September An earlier shift in the federal government's fiscal year was made in , shifting the fiscal year from a calendar year to one starting on 1 July. For example, the United States government Fiscal Year is:.

State governments set their own fiscal year. Forty-six of the fifty states set their fiscal year to end on 30 June. The fiscal year for the Washington, D. Among the inhabited territories of the United States , most align with the federal fiscal year, ending on 30 September. Virgin Islands. In Vietnam , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

The tax year for a business is governed by the fiscal year it chooses. A business may choose any consistent fiscal year that it wants; however, for seasonal businesses such as farming and retail, a good account practice is to end the fiscal year shortly after the highest revenue time of year. Consequently, most large agriculture companies end their fiscal years after the harvest season, and most retailers end their fiscal years shortly after the Christmas shopping season.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One-year term for government and business financial reporting. For the business centre of a city, see Central business district. Major types. Key concepts. Selected accounts. Accounting standards. Financial statements. Financial Internal Firms Report. People and organizations. Accountants Accounting organizations Luca Pacioli. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 14 August Financial Times. The Financial Times Ltd.

The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 24 May IRS Publication Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 9 July Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 11 August Available at [1]. Parker ISBN Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 16 June Department of Justice Canada in English and French. Department of Justice Canada. China Checkup. Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 19 December The Hindu Business Line.

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Thank you for your interest, our team will get back to you shortly. Our representative will get in touch with you shortly. Updated on : Mar 28, - PM. They often tend to treat them as the same, which leads to making mistakes when they file their income tax returns. The assessment year AY is the year that comes after the FY. This is the time in which the income earned during FY is assessed and taxed. For instance, for FY , the assessment year is AY From an income tax perspective , FY is the year in which you earn an income.

For instance, if your financial year is from 1 April to 31 March , then it is known as FY The assessment year for the money earned during this period would begin after the financial year ends — that is from 1 April to 31 March Hence, the assessment year would be AY Since income for any particular financial year is evaluated and taxed in the assessment year, income tax return forms have assessment year AY.

As the income earned in a financial year cannot be taxed before it is earned, so it is taxed in the following year. Scenarios like loss of job, job change, new investments etc. Also, the income earned in a financial year cannot be exactly known before the end of the financial year. This is why the assessment can start only after the financial year ends.

Hence, taxpayers have to select AY while filing their income tax returns. In the Northern Hemisphere , that is July to the next June. In the Southern Hemisphere , that is the calendar year, January to December. The fiscal year for individuals and entities to report and pay income taxes is often known as the taxpayer's tax year or taxable year. Taxpayers in many jurisdictions may choose their tax year. In the United States, most states retained a 30 June fiscal year-end date when the federal government switched to 30 September in Most countries require all individuals to pay income tax based on the calendar year.

Significant exceptions include:. Many jurisdictions require that the tax year conform to the taxpayer's fiscal year for financial reporting. The United States is a notable exception: taxpayers may choose any tax year, but must keep books and records for such year. In some jurisdictions, particularly those that permit tax consolidation , companies that are part of a group of businesses must use nearly the same fiscal year differences of up to three months are permitted in some jurisdictions, such as the U.

As shown in the chart below, leap years will coincide in and but will desynchronize with the Gregorian calendar having a leap year in as opposed to the Afghan calendar's leap year of In Australia , a fiscal year is commonly called a "financial year" FY and starts on 1 July and ends on the next 30 June.

Financial years are designated by the calendar year of the second half of the period. It is used for official purposes, by individual taxpayers and by the overwhelming majority of business enterprises. All entities within the one group must use the same financial year. For government accounting and budget purposes, pre- Federation colonies changed the financial year from the calendar year to a year ending 30 June on the following dates: Victoria changed in , South Australia in , Queensland in , Western Australia in , New South Wales in and Tasmania in The Commonwealth adopted the near-ubiquitous financial year standard since its inception in The Financial year is split into the following four-quarters [14].

In Austria , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Bangladesh , the fiscal year is 1 July to the next 30 June. In Belarus , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Brazil , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

In Bulgaria , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December, both for personal income tax [17] and for corporate taxes. In Canada , the government's financial year is 1 April to 31 March. In China , the fiscal year for all entities is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December, and applies to the tax year, statutory year, and planning year. In Colombia , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

In Costa Rica , the fiscal year is 1 January to 31 December. In Egypt , the fiscal year is 1 July to 30 June. In France , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December, and has been since at least In Greece , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Hong Kong , the government's financial year runs from 1 April to 31 March. However, a company incorporated in Hong Kong can determine its own financial year-end, which may be different from the government fiscal year.

In India , the government's financial year runs from 1 April to 31 March the following year. Companies following Indian fiscal year get to know their economic health on 31 March of every Indian financial or fiscal year. The current fiscal year was adopted by the colonial British government in to align India's financial year with that of the British Empire. In , the LK Jha committee recommended adopting a fiscal year that ran from 1 January to 31 December.

However, this proposal was not adopted by the government fearing possible issues during the transition period. On 4 May , Madhya Pradesh announced that it would move to a January—December financial year, becoming the first Indian state to do so. But later it dropped the idea.

In Indonesia , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Iran , the fiscal year usually starts on 21st or 22 March 1st of Farvardin in the Solar Hijri calendar and concludes on next year's 20th or 21 March 29th or 30th of Esfand in the Solar Hijri calendar. In Ireland , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

Until , it was the year ending 5 April, as in the United Kingdom, but was changed with the introduction of the euro. The tax year was nine months, from April to December. In Israel , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Italy , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. It was changed in , before which it was 1 July to 30 June. In Japan , the government's financial year is from 1 April to 31 March.

Japan's income tax year is 1 January to 31 December, [38] but corporate tax is charged according to the corporation's own annual period. In Lithuania , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Macau , the government's financial year is 1 January to 31 December. In Mexico , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Moldova , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

In Myanmar , the fiscal year is 1 October to 30 September. In New Zealand , the government's fiscal [44] and financial reporting [45] year is 1 July to the next 30 June [46] and applies also to the budget. The company and personal financial year [47] is 1 April to 31 March and applies to company and personal income tax. In Pakistan , the government's fiscal year is 1 July of the previous calendar year and concludes on 30 June.

Private companies are free to observe their own accounting year, which may not be the same as government's fiscal year. In Poland , the fiscal year is from 1 January to 31 December. In Portugal , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Qatar , the fiscal year is from 1 January to 31 December.

In Romania , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Russia , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Singapore , the fiscal year for the calculation of personal income taxes is 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year for the Government of Singapore and many government-linked corporations is 1 April to 31 March. Corporations and organisations are permitted to select any date as the end of each fiscal year, as long as this date remains constant.

However, new companies should consciously choose their financial year end to stretch as much as a duration of 12 months as possible. The year of assessment for individuals covers twelve months, 1 March to the final day of February the following year. The Act also provides for certain classes of taxpayers to have a year of assessment ending on a day other than the last day of February.

Companies are permitted to have a tax year ending on a date that coincides with their financial year. Many older companies still use a tax year that runs from 1 July to 30 June, inherited from the British system. A common practice for newer companies is to run their tax year from 1 March to the final day of February following, to synchronize with the tax year for individuals. In South Korea , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December.

In Spain , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Sweden , the fiscal year for individuals is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. However, all calendar months are allowed. If an organisation wishes to change into a non-calendar year, permission from the Tax Authority is required.

In Switzerland , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Taiwan , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. However, an enterprise may elect to adopt a special fiscal year at the time it is established and can request approval from the tax authorities to change its fiscal year.

In Turkey , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In Ukraine , the fiscal year is the calendar year, 1 January to 31 December. In the United Kingdom , the financial year runs from 1 April to 31 March for the purposes of government financial statements. Although United Kingdom corporation tax is charged by reference to the government's financial year, companies can adopt any year as their accounting year: if there is a change in tax rate, the taxable profit is apportioned to financial years on a time basis.

A number of major corporations that were once government-owned, such as BT Group and the National Grid , continue to use the government's financial year, which ends on the last day of March, as they have found no reason to change since privatisation. The 5 April year end for income tax reflects the old civil and ecclesiastical calendar under which New Year began on 25 March Lady Day. The difference between the two dates is accounted for by the eleven days omitted in September due to the Calendar New Style Act by which Great Britain also converted from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar.

However, although the calendar year finished on 24 March, the tax year finished a day later, on 25 March, the Quarter Day. For a fuller explanation about the history of the United Kingdom income tax year and its start date, see History of taxation in the United Kingdom Why the United Kingdom income tax year begins on 6 April. In the United States , the federal government's fiscal year is the month period beginning 1 October and ending 30 September the following year.

The identification of a fiscal year is the calendar year in which it ends; thus, the current fiscal year is , often written as "FY" or "FY22", which began on 1 October and will end on 30 September Until , the fiscal year began on 1 July and ended on 30 June. The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of made the change to allow Congress more time to arrive at a budget each year, and provided for what is known as the "transitional quarter" from 1 July to 30 September An earlier shift in the federal government's fiscal year was made in , shifting the fiscal year from a calendar year to one starting on 1 July.

For example, the United States government Fiscal Year is:. State governments set their own fiscal year. Forty-six of the fifty states set their fiscal year to end on 30 June. The fiscal year for the Washington, D.

Among the inhabited territories of the United States , most align with the federal fiscal year, ending on 30 September. Virgin Islands.